Back-translation is a validation tool widely used in international research settings, including, but not limited to, cross-cultural psychology, international marketing, educational assessments, quality of life research, and international nursing research. As a rule, researchers use back-translation to validate the quality of translated research instruments, such as tests and questionnaires
The method consists in re-translating the translated text back into the source language. The back-translation and the original document are compared for inconsistencies, and if none are found, the translation is considered equivalent.Thomas Hunter, translation specialist,
The method has many adherents and opponents; however, neither uses solid linguistic evidence in their arguments. This study is an attempt to suggest a theoretical linguistic framework for describing and evaluating the back-translation process, namely the cognitive linguistics approach, with the main focus on Langacker‟s Cognitive Grammar. The study is illustrated with examples from actual questionnaires translated from English into Ukrainian
Cross-cultural social research is understood here as a generic term that covers such diverse fields as anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, international marketing research, quality of life research, etc. All these areas use specific research instruments, usually in the form of questionnaires, that are used basically as measurement tools.
The shipping industry is currently going through an information led revolution which is allowing companies to reassess the way in which they undertake their day to day tasks as well as discover efficiencies and open-up new commercial opportunities.
Many software development companies specializing in fleet management solutions convince their clients to change their business processes to fit the generic software package rather than customizing the software to fit the firm’s business processes. While this makes it easy for the development company to build the application, having specially made software is better, as businesses are built around processes.
If you’re struggling with how to organize your warehouse more efficiently, consider the following tips from industry leaders and warehouse authorities. Warehouse operations are at the heart of a company. When warehouse operations are efficient, companies keep costs low and customers happy. When they’re not, companies don’t ship or receive inventory in time, workers are not as productive as possible, and your company loses money and credibility.
As a result, the role of fleet managers has developed rapidly over the last few years, and it now enjoys an elevated position. Now running a successful fleet management program calls for skills including strategy, change management, finance, and negotiation.
Adopting a new warehouse inventory management system can be an exciting time for a business. The new technology and solutions are filled with possibility – but they also need some direction to work well with a new supply chain strategy. So if you are upgrading your warehouse capabilities, improving inventory control, or building an entirely new storage unit, begin by exploring your new abilities and what you can do to save money, decrease loss, and make the most of your advanced system!
Does your company use forklifts, pickers, pallet jacks or other material handling equipment? Often overlooked, these items are just as important to manage as your fleet of vehicles.
Unfortunately, organizing a warehouse efficiently is easier said than done. Each decision should support the organization’s goals while being aimed at increasing productivity, optimizing space, reducing costs, and delivering superior customer service.
There are several FMS platforms and tools available in the market and most fleet management software providers naturally will advertise their product as the ideal ones for your business. However, nobody knows better than you on what works best for your company.
When it comes to independently managed fleets, you may be missing out on crucial support and insight. Partnering with a fleet management company like Element gives you a single contact for end-to-end fleet solutions. This creates new opportunities for you, freeing you up to focus on the key strategic elements of your job that will drive extraordinary results for your company.
Companies that depend on vehicles to deliver products and services to customers need an FMS to control costs, mitigate risks, enhance productivity, and remain compliant with government regulations. FMS streamlines all processes and activities related to fleet operations and oversees everything from driver safety and vehicle condition to customer satisfaction and corporate profitability.
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